Study programmes / B-AS Agricultural Specialization / Phytocenology
Course code:FYC
Course title in language of instruction:Fytocenologie
Course title in Czech:Fytocenologie
Course title in English:Phytocenology
Mode of completion and number of credits:Exam (6 credits)
(1 ECTS credit = 28 hours of workload)
Mode of delivery/Timetabled classes:full-time, 2/2
(full-time, hours of lectures per week / hours of seminars per week)
Language of instruction:Czech
Level of course:bachelor
Semester:SS 2019/2020 - FA
Name of lecturer:Mgr. Martin Jiroušek, Ph.D. (examiner, instructor, lecturer, supervisor)
Ing. Jan Winkler, Ph.D. (instructor)
Mgr. Magda Zdražílková, Ph.D. (instructor)
Prerequisites:Systematic Botany
Aims of the course:Students will learn the basic types of vegetation in Central Europe. For individual vegetation types, characteristic environmental conditions, ecological context, typical plant species and fundamental interactions between vegetation and human activity. Practical methods of phytosociological data processing on computers will take place in practice room. Fundamental methods of data analyses and presentation (diversity indexes, the indicator properties of plants, phytosociological plot databases, synoptic tables, determination of diagnostic species for particular vegetation types, manual and automatic classification of vegetation, importance of phytosociology in practice, establishment and evaluation of fild experiments for studying the vegetation differences in time and space (e.g., the effect of grazing, fertilization experiment, impact of climate change on vegetation), using of multivariate ordination methods). During the field exercises, basic methods of field phytosociological research (phytosociological data recording) in various types of vegetation (grassland, forest, weed vegetation) will be presented .
Course contents:
1.Introduction, research scope, history of phytosociology, fundamental phytosociological methods (allowance 2/0)
a.Basic geobotanical terms, principles, phytosociological units.

2.Vegetation change in space (allowance 2/0)
b.Main climatic gradients affecting vegetation zones of Europe; temperature, precipitation, continentality
c.Altitudinal zonation of vegetation in the Czech Republic

3.Vegetation change in time (allowance 2/0)
a.paleoecological methods
b.vegetation in glacial period and Holocene, migrations of dominant woody plants, establishment of recent central-European natural vegetion
c.Role of the man in development of Holocene vegetation

4.Overview of the most important vegetation units of the Czech republic. Diagnostic species, synecology, synchorology, importance, distribution and preservation if need be. (allowance 16/2)
a.Communities of still and runing waters.
b.Spring, reed and tall-sedge vegetation.
c.Fens, mires raised bogs and wet meadows.
d.Mesic meadows and pastures and dry steppe grasslands.
e.Sand and salt vegetation.
g.Fringe communities and ecotonal communities.
h.Cliff, alpine and subalpine vegetation.
i.Habitats strongly influenced or created by man.

5.Gebotanical mapping. Importance and application of phytosociological research. (allowance 2/4)
6.Phytosociological relevé, synthetical and analytical traits of vegetation. (allowance 0/2)
7.Practical digitizing of phytosociological data (allowance 0/4) Turboveg for Windows

8.Analyses of phytosociological data (allowance 0/12) JUICE (bioindication of plants, diversity indexes, classification of vegetation, ...) CANOCO 5 (multivariate analyses)

Learning outcomes and competences:
Generic competences:
-ability to analyse and synthesize
-ability to apply knowledge
-professional knowledge

Specific competences:
- Ability of the reliable determination of plant species important from the ecological point of view.
-Ability of assessment of ecological and environmental conditions according to species composition of the stand
-Ability of forecast of vegetation response and succ.essional changes induced by anthropogenic and natural impacts.
-Ability to classify plant communities into defined specific vegetation units
-Assessment of environment quality changes resulting from the species composition
-Prediction ability of certain measuremnts impact on some ecosystems

Type of course unit:required
Year of study:Not applicable - the subject could be chosen at anytime during the course of the programme.
Work placement:There is no compulsory work placement in the course unit.
Recommended study modules:none
Assessment methods:Following rules are required for the preliminary exam ("zápočet"):

1) participation in practices is obligatory (two absences are excused). Students have to activelly work during practical courses to do a digital processing and analysis of phytosociological data on computers, or collection of phytosociological data during joint field works.

2) each student separately should record a phytosociological plot data in the field according to the proposed methodology. Its sociological and ecological interpretation will be required during the last practical lesson.

The exam is in an oral form. It is necessary to prove the acquired knowledges and their applications considering the current problems in the landscape. There are 3 questions through the exam, each of them must be answered at least of 50%. The first question concerns a comprehensive description of the selected plant community (habitat requirements, diversity, species composition, socio-economic use, distribution in the Czech Republic, threat, practical protection management). The second question focuses on the historical development of vegetation, the general relationships between vegetation and the environment, the influence of man on vegetation in the past and the present, or methods of vegetation research. The third question is chosen in relation to the topic of the student's final bachelor work.
Learning activities and study load (hours of study load)
Type of teaching methodDaily attendance
Direct teaching
     lecture24 h
     practice24 h
     field work10 h
     consultation6 h
     preparation for exam92 h
     report from excursion, tour, practical placement2 h
     writing of seminar paper10 h
Total168 h

Basic reading list
  • CHYTRÝ, M. Vegetace České republiky. 1st ed. Praha: Academia, 2007. 526 p. ISBN 978-80-200-1462-7.
  • CHYTRÝ, M. Vegetace České republiky. 1st ed. Praha: Academia, 2009. 520 p. ISBN 978-80-200-1769-7.
  • CHYTRÝ, M. Vegetace České republiky. 1st ed. Praha: Academia, 2011. 827 p. ISBN 978-80-200-1918-9.
  • CHYTRÝ, M. Vegetace České republiky. 1st ed. Praha: Academia, 2013. 551 p. ISBN 978-80-200-2299-8.
  • CHYTRÝ , M. -- KUČERA, T. -- KOČÍ, M. Katalog biotopů České republiky. Praha: AOPK ČR, 2001. 307 p. ISBN 80-86064-55-7.
  • MORAVEC, J. et al. Fytocenologie. 1st ed. Praha: Academia, 2000. 403 p. ISBN 80-200-0128-X.
Recommended reading list
  • MÍCHAL, I. -- PETŘÍČEK, V. Péče o chráněná území -- II. Lesní společenstva. Praha: Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR, 1999. 714 p.
  • HROUDA, L. -- CHRTEK , J. -- KUBÁT, K. Klíč ke květeně České republiky. Praha: Academia, 2002. 927 p. ISBN 80-200-0836-5.
  • HEJNÝ, S. -- SLAVÍK, B. -- CHRTEK, J. -- KOVANDA, M. Květena České republiky. 2nd ed. 557 p. ISBN 80-200-0643-5.
  • POKORNÝ, P. Neklidné časy: kapitoly ze společných dějin přírody a lidí. 1st ed. Praha: Dokořán, 2011. 369 p. ISBN 978-80-7363-392-9.
  • LOŽEK, V. Zrcadlo minulosti: česká a slovenská krajina v kvartéru. 2nd ed. Praha: Dokořán, 2007. 198 p. ISBN 978-80-7363-340-0.
  • SÁDLO, J. -- STORCH, D. Biologie krajiny: biotopy České republiky. 2nd ed. Praha: Vesmír, 2000. 94 p. ISBN 80-85977-31-1.
  • HEJNÝ, S. -- SLAVÍK, B. -- -, E. Květena ČR 1. - 6. díl. Praha: Academia, 1988.
  • NEUHÄUSLOVÁ-NOVOTNÁ, Z. et al. Mapa potenciální přirozené vegetace České republiky: textová část. 1st ed. Praha: Academia, 1998. 341 p. ISBN 80-200-0687-7.
  • LEPŠ, J. -- ŠMILAUER, P. Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. 282 p.
  • CHYTRÝ, M. Vegetation of the Czech Republic: diversity, ecology, history and dynamics. Praha: Česká botanická společnost, 2012. 68 p. ISSN 0032-7786.
  • CHYTRÝ, M. -- KAPLAN, Z. -- DANIHELKA, J. Flora and Vegetation of the Czech Republic. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017. 466 p. ISBN 978-3-319-63181-3.
  • KOLÁŘ, F. et al. Ochrana přírody z pohledu biologa: proč a jak chránit českou přírodu. 1st ed. Praha: Dokořán, 2012. 213 p. ISBN 978-80-7363-414-8.
  • PETŘÍČEK , V. -- MÍCHAL, I. Péče o chráněná území. I. Nelesní společenstva, II. Lesní společenstva. Praha : AOPK ČR, 1999.