Study programmes / B-PPR Plant Protection / Biochemistry - P
Course code:CBI-P
Course title in language of instruction:Biochemie - P
Course title in Czech:Biochemie - P
Course title in English:Biochemistry - P
Mode of completion and number of credits:Exam (4 credits)
(1 ECTS credit = 28 hours of workload)
Mode of delivery/Timetabled classes:full-time, 2/0
(full-time, hours of lectures per week / hours of seminars per week)
Language of instruction:Czech
Level of course:bachelor
Semester:SS 2018/2019 - FA
Name of lecturer:prof. RNDr. Vojtěch Adam, Ph.D. (supervisor)
doc. Ing. Josef Zehnálek, CSc. (examiner, lecturer)
Prerequisites:none
 
Aims of the course:To deepen knowledge about material composition and organization of living systems. To learn basics of enzymology and principles of material and energetical transformations in organisms. To manage biochemistry basics and to gain skills to be able to apply new information during studium of subsequent specialized subjects.
Course contents:
1.Establishment and current role of biochemistry. (allowance 2/0)
 
a.Basic terms and main biochemical methods.
b.Basic cell structures and metabolic processes running in.
c.Biomembranes and membrane transport.

2.Material composition of organisms. (allowance 2/0)
 
a.Water.
b.Proteins.
c.Nucleic acids.
d.Saccharides.
e.Lipides.
f.Intermediate products of metabolism.
g.Biogenous elements.

3.Vitamins as cofactor components. (allowance 2/0)
 
a.Main water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, panthotenic acid, folic acid, biotin, corinoids, ascorbic acid) and fat-soluble vitamins (retinol, 3-dehydroretinol, calciferols, tocopherols, phylloquinone, farnoquinone, menadione, essential fatty acids).
b.Vitamin-like substances and antivitamins.

4.Biocatalysis. (allowance 4/0)
 
a.Enzyme molecule structure (oxidoreductase cofactors, cofactors catalyzing atom-groups transfers and cofactors of other enzyme classes, enzyme active center, tertiary and quaternary enzyme structure).
b.Enzyme localization and appearance shapes.
c.Enzyme mechanism of action.
d.Influence of reaction conditions on enzyme efficiency (concentration of substate and enzyme impact, environment physical attributes impact, impact of substances modifying enzyme activity).
e.Enzyme activity regulation.
f.Enzyme classification and nomenclature, catalytic activity expression.
g.Laboratory and industrial application of enzymes.

5.Principles of material and energy transformation in organisms. (allowance 2/0)
 
a.Catabolism and anabolism.
b.Energetics of biochemical reactions.
c.Chemical energy carriers.
d.Respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
e.Citrate cycle and its modifications.
f.Glyoxylate cycle.

6.Metabolism of saccharides. (allowance 4/0)
 
a.Glycolysis - main pathway of saccharides degradation.
b.Pentose phosphate pathway.
c.Anaerobic transformation of pyruvate, fermentation types, regulation and energy balance.
d.Biosynthesis of saccharides (transformation of pyruvate to glucose, biosynthesis of glucose from other precursors).
e.Photosynthesis biochemistry.
f.Light-dependent and light-independent phase of photosynthesis.
g.Calvin cycle and Hatch-Slack cycle.
h.Photorespiration - localization and function.
i.Assimilatory nitrate reduction and sulphate reduction (nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, biochemistry of nitrogen fixation, sulphate reductase complex).

7.Metabolism of lipides. (allowance 2/0)
 
a.Triacylglycerols and fatty acids metabolism (fatty acids activation, beta oxidation of fatty acids).
b.Biosynthesis of energy reserve substances (fatty acids, triacylglycerols, gluconeogenesis, glyconeogenesis).
c.Biosynthesis, role and function of steroids.

8.Metabolism of nitrogenous substances. (allowance 6/0)
 
a.Amino acids degradation (reactions at an alpha carbon atom, principles of side chain degradation).
b.Ammonium detoxication - ornithine (ureogenetic) cycle, glutamine synthesis.
c.Purines and pyrimidines degradation.
d.Metabolic disorders of nitrogenous substances.
e.Protein synthesis.
f.Nucleic acid structure and function.
g.Mechanism of genetic information transfer and its modification (DNA biosynthesis, RNA biosynthesis, genetic code, mutation).
h.Peptide chain biosynthesis (amino acid activation, iniciation, elongation, termination, post-translational modification.
i.Proteolysis (proteolytic enzymes classification, hydrolysis of nutrient proteins, tissue protein degradation).

9.Secondary metabolism. (allowance 2/0)
 
a.Secondary metabolites and its function.
b.Chemical structure and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

10.Biochemical regulation principles. (allowance 2/0)
 
a.Intracellular regulation (regulation of proteosynthesis, metabolic regulations).
b.Neurohormonal regulation.
c.Hormones and its action (regulation of hormones synthesis and secretion, action of hormones and its mechanism).
d.Phytohormones and mechanism of action.

Learning outcomes and competences:
Generic competences:
 
-ability to solve problems
-ability to work independently
-basic computing skills
-skilled at utilizing and processing information

Specific competences:
 
-Ability to apply knowledge of the principles of substance and energy transformations in organisms
-Knowledge of the basic components of living organisms
-Knowledge of the chemical structures of secondary metabolites
-Knowledge of the mechanisms of biocatalysis and application of enzymes in agriculture
-Knowledge of the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen co

Type of course unit:required
Year of study:Not applicable - the subject could be chosen at anytime during the course of the programme.
Work placement:There is no compulsory work placement in the course unit.
Recommended study modules:none
Assessment methods:Examination.
The final exam consists of written and oral parts. Thirty minute written test consists of four sets of questions that must be answered at least 50%. The following oral exam contains 3 test questions from the topics listed in the syllabus (each question must be answered at least in part).
 
Learning activities and study load (hours of study load)
Type of teaching methodDaily attendance
Direct teaching
     lecture28 h
     consultation14 h
Self-study
     preparation for exam70 h
Total112 h

Basic reading list
  • ZEHNÁLEK, J. Biochemie 2. Brno: Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita v Brně, 2007. 200 p. ISBN 978-80-7157-716-4.
  • VODRÁŽKA, Z. Biochemie. Academia., 1996. 507 p. ISBN 80-200-0600-1.
  • KLOUDA, P. Základy biochemie. 2nd ed. Ostrava: Pavel Klouda, 2005. 143 p. ISBN 80-86369-11-0.
Recommended reading list
  • VOET, D. -- VOET, J G. Biochemie. 1st ed. Praha: Victoria Publish., 1995. 14 p. ISBN 80-85605-44-9.
  • CAMPBELL, M K. -- FARRELL, S O. Biochemistry. 6th ed. Belmont: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008. 1 p. ISBN 978-0-495-39046-6.