Study programmes / B-PPR Plant Protection / Microscopic Methods
Course code:MM
Course title in language of instruction:Mikroskopické metody
Course title in Czech:Mikroskopické metody
Course title in English:Microscopic Methods
Mode of completion and number of credits:Exam (5 credits)
(1 ECTS credit = 28 hours of workload)
Mode of delivery/Timetabled classes:full-time, 1/3
(full-time, hours of lectures per week / hours of seminars per week)
Language of instruction:Czech
Level of course:bachelor
Semester:WS 2018/2019 - FA
Name of lecturer:Ing. Biljana Djordjević, Ph.D. (instructor)
Ing. Petr Kalousek, Ph.D. (examiner, instructor, lecturer, supervisor)
Aims of the course:In this course student can acquire knowledge concerning light, fluorescence, confocal, raster, and electron microscopy as well as image analysis. Their theoretical knowledge will lead them to the acquisition of skills enabling the preparation of quick, pressure, frozen and permanent preparations of plant cells, tissues, and organs. Students will be able to observe these preparations in the above microscopes, to evaluate results and to perform corresponding documents (drawings, photodocumentation).
Course contents:
1.Introduction (allowance 1/3)
a.Preparation of anatomic sections and permanent microscopic preparations
b.Staining of microscopic preparations

2.Light microscopy (allowance 2/6)
a.Microscope; optic principles
b.Individual components of a microscope -- their construction and functions
c.Microscope adjustment, Köhler illumination

3.Dark-field microscopy, phase contrast microscopy (allowance 1/3)
a.Importance, principle, and supplementary equipment of light microscopes
b.Preparation of phase contrast for microscopy

4.Measuring and drawing of microscopic structures (allowance 1/3)
a.Importance, and supplementary equipment of light microscopes
b.Calibration of measuring ocular, preparation of drawing equipment for work

5.Microphotography (allowance 1/3)
a.Principles. Taking pictures
b.Digital microphotography

6.Fluorescence microscopy (allowance 1/3)
a.Fluorescence. Fluorescent staines
b.Fluorescent microscope

7.Confocal microscopy (allowance 1/3)
a.Confocal microscope
Spatial microscopy
b.Time series microscopy
c.Spatial microscopy
d.FISH method, PRINC method, GISH method

8.Electron microscopy (allowance 1/3)
a.Electron microscope
b.Preparation of specimens
c.Taking of electronoptical images

9.Scanning microscopy (allowance 1/3)
a.Scanning microscope
b.Preparation of specimens
c.Taking images

10.Flow cytometry (allowance 1/3)
a.Principles and application
b.Mitosis synchronisation
c.Isolation of nuclei
d.Isolation of chromosomes

11.Use of image analysis in microscopy (allowance 1/3)
a.Use of image analysis in microscopy
b.Measuring of objects
c.Measuring of density

Learning outcomes and competences:
Generic competences:
-ability to analyse and synthesize
-ability to apply knowledge
-ability to comment on performance of others and to self-reflect
-ability to communicate with professionals in different field of study
-ability to create new ideas (creativity)
-ability to make decisions
-ability to organize and plan ahead
-ability to solve problems
-ability to speak and write in mother tongue
-ability to work independently
-basic computing skills
-capacity to adapt to new situations
-capacity to learn
-general knowledge
-professional knowledge
-quality concept awareness
-resolve to succeed
-science and research skills
-skilled at utilizing and processing information
-work in team

Specific competences:
-Abililty of complex data analysis
-Knowledge of basic principles of optics
-Knowledge of different microscopic techniques
-Knowledge of laboratory instrumental methods
-Laboratory work abitility
-Management of research and commercial laboratory
-Search and processing of scientific literature
-Skills with documentation of microscopic observation
-Skills with methods which deals with specimen preparation

Type of course unit:required
Year of study:Not applicable - the subject could be chosen at anytime during the course of the programme.
Work placement:There is no compulsory work placement in the course unit.
Recommended study modules:none
Assessment methods:The course is finished and credits are obtained with successful completion of practical training (max. 2 excused absences are tolerated), submission of protocols from laboratory topics, and receiving at least 66% points of maximum from 3 partial written tests. The examination is oral. It consists of 3 randomly selected questions. The questions relate to the syllabus topics. At least 60% of an excellent answer is necessary to pass the oral part successfully.
Learning activities and study load (hours of study load)
Type of teaching methodDaily attendance
Direct teaching
     lecture12 h
     practice36 h
     professional educational excursion6 h
     consultation6 h
     preparation for exam70 h
     elaboration of reports10 h
Total140 h

Basic reading list
  • PALEČEK, J. Biologie buňky I. - Základy mikroskopické cytologie. 1st ed. Praha: Karolinum, 1996. 120 p. ISBN 80-7184-266-4.
  • PALEČEK, J. Biologie buňky II. - Základy mikroskopické histologie. 1st ed. Praha: Karolinum, 1996. 157 p. ISBN 80-7184-279-6.
  • DELONG, A. -- DRAHOŠ, V. Praktická elektronová mikroskopie. 1st ed. 370 p. Práce ČSAV. Sekce matematicko-fysikální.
  • PAZOUREK, J. Pracujeme s mikroskopem. Praha: SNTL, 1975.
  • WOLF, J. Mikroskopická technika: optická i elektronová pro biologické účely. 2nd ed. Praha: SZDN, 1954. 651 p.
Recommended reading list
  • SPECTOR, D L. -- GOLDMAN, R D. -- LEINWAND, L A. Cells: A Laboratory Manual - Vol.2 : Light Microscopy and Cell Structure. New York: CSHL Press, 1997. ISBN 0-87969-521-8.
  • LACEY, A J. Light microscopy in biology : a practical approach. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 452 p. The Practical approach series. ISBN 0-19-963669-9.